Lab Network

I am starting an ongoing series involving a semi-static set of devices.  These will involve different tutorials on things such as OSPF, cambium configuration, vlans, and other topics.  Below is the general topology I will use for this lab network.  As things progress I will be able to swap different manufacturers and device models into this scenario without changing the overall topology.  We may add a device or two here and there, but overall this basic setup will remain the same.  This will allow you to see how different things are configured in the same environment without changing the overall scheme too much.

We will start with very basic steps.  How to login to the router, how to set an IP address, then we will move to setting up a wireless bridge between the two routers.  Once we have that done we will move onto setting up OSPF to enable dynamic routing.  After that the topics are open.  I have things like BGP planned, and some other things. If there is anything you would like to see please let me know.

Vendor Spotlight: Subcarrier Communications

Over the past several WISPA shows I have had the opportunity to chat and get to know CEO John Paleski from Subcarrier Communications (www.subcarrier.com). John is very in-tune with how the WISP industry functions in terms of tower needs.  Many of the big tower companies tack on so many fees with their towers it makes leasing a tower out of reach for many. Add on the processes in place can be a deterrent to getting equipment in place.

Subcarrier has addressed many of these hurdles for the WISP industry.  Reasonable rates for tower rent are always a concern, but if the business model is there for the WISP, they are not the primary concern many times.  Not only has subcarrier realized many WISPs are utilizing smaller equipment, but things like huge application fees are a negative for the smaller WISP. Subcarrier knows what is on their towers. Such a simple thing means a rapid and smooth deployment for the WISP.  After several conversations with JOHN, it is apparent he knows just about every tower in his inventory.  He can tell you if they will support what you are wanting to hang on that tower without running a $2000 engineering study right off the bat.  On the flip side, he isn’t compromising safety or integrity of the tower.  Many towers, such as old AT&T long lines towers were built to such high specifications if you just apply a little common sense and some quick figuring you know the typical WISP deployment isn’t going to add any significant amount of loading on the tower.

I believe that John thinks the same way many of us in this industry do.  An empty tower is not making anybody any money.  If it makes sense for both parties then a deal can be made.  Too many of the larger tower companies only look at deals that make sense for them.

I would encourage any of you looking for towerspace to check out the sites Subcarrier has.  Check out their interactive Google Search to see if they have some towers you could use. Tell them Justin sent you over.

Tower crew in today’s world

One of the questions we often are asked is why our rates for tower work are what they are. In today’s world, a tower crew needs the following, not only for themselves but to protect and do the best job for the client.

The first key is equipment.  Having a crew with proper ropes, proper lifting blocks, and pulleys, and proper safety gear goes a long way. A job can be done more efficiently with the proper tools.  In-Shape tools make a big difference. How many times have you gone to cut something with a dull blade? Tools get used up and have to be replaced.

Next up is safety and insurance.  I lump these into the same category because an insured crew is safe for the client.  Having the proper insurance protects the client from anything that may happen.  Tower work is dangerous work.  With insurance requirements comes updated training. Not only does this teach crews new methods of doing things, it helps them in becoming complacent in safety practices.

Availability is the next thing. Having a crew that can roll out in a timely manner to meet client’s needs takes a dedicated staff.  We see too many part-time crews not bringing in enough money so they are having to moonlight doing other things this lessens the availability because you have to find steady work to have quality people.

The last thing is the experience our crews have.  Having been a veteran of the WISP industry for over 12 years I have seen many ways of doing things, so Have the rest of the experienced folks in our crews. We have done night climbs, harsh weather work, and custom work.  Having someone who knows the WISP industry doing your tower work makes a huge difference.

SaaS aka why I should pay per month for billing

The topic of paying per user for a billing or management platforms comes up every so often.  I was able to sit down and talk with several vendors at WISPAPALOOZA this year about the value of their customers paying a per-user fee.

The most prevalent thought is about innovation and new features.  SaaS allows the billing vendor to invest development and testing time in rolling out new features to support new equipment, and other software.  LTE platforms are the hot thing in billing integration. New additions to software take people power and hours of testing and tweaking. Without monthly recurring revenue to drive such things billing vendors would have to develop this and then charge to the early adopters as an add-on.  This can be a double-edged sword. The early adopters have to pay a premium in order to get a partial solution because the vendor has to really prioritize how their development resources are used. The Vendor is always chasing the next big thing, which means other additions or fixes tend to get pushed back. They have to finish add-ons they think more folks will want to buy first.

The next thing is plain old hosting. Hosting a software application, whether in the cloud or on your own hardware costs money.  Co-location, software patches on the OS, hardware lifecycles, etc.  This cuts down on the end-user maintenance side of the hardware but pushes it back to the vendor. The peace of mind of knowing the thing that collects your money is running is backed up, and is available as part of the monthly fee you pay.

SaaS also allows for quicker releases of bugs and new features.  Vendors have more resources dedicated to development and changes. This allows for new add-ons to become available quicker.  Take the traditional model where you get bug fixes, but major feature add-ons are either a full point upgrade or major version upgrade. This usually costs money and is a slower process.  Not only does the vendor have to spend resources advertising, but they have to deal with support and other issues. With billing vendors who charge a monthly fee fixes from companies such as Paypal or Authorize.net are almost always rolled out very quickly at no additional charge to the end user ISP.

Some companies such as Basecamp, which is not a billing platform, have taken a hybrid approach to SaaS. Every major revision that comes out is an upgrade. You can choose to upgrade or stay where you are and pay the same amount.  This can leave customers behind but still allows them to use what they are paying for.  They just don’t get new features or bug fixes.

So the next time you are figuring out why you should pay for a billing platform on a monthly, customer, or subscription basis take all of this into account.

For those looking for xISP billing, and mainly WISP billing, here is a partial list:

www.azotel.com
www.visp.net
www.powercode.com
www.sonar.software
www.splynx.com
www.ispbilling.com (Platypus)
www.freeside.biz
www.quickbooks.com

If you have more please add them in the comments.

The problem with peering from a logistics standpoint

Many ISPs run into this problem as part of their growing pains.  This scenario usually starts happening with their third or 4th peer.

Scenario.  ISP grows beyond the single connection they have.  This can be 10 meg, 100 meg, gig or whatever.  They start out looking for redundancy. The ISP brings in a second provider, usually at around the same bandwidth level.  This way the network has two pretty equal paths to go out.

A unique problem usually develops as the network grows to the point of peaking the capacity of both of these connections.  The ISP has to make a decision. Do they increase the capacity to just one provider? Most don’t have the budget to increase capacities to both providers. Now, if you increase one you are favouring one provider over another until the budget allows you to increase capacity on both. You are essentially in a state where you have to favor one provider in order to keep up capacity.  If you fail over to the smaller pipe things could be just as bad as being down.

This is where many ISPs learn the hard way that BGP is not load balancing. But what about padding, communities, local-pref, and all that jazz? We will get to that.  In the meantime, our ISP may have the opportunity to get to an Internet Exchange (IX) and offload things like streaming traffic.  Traffic returns to a little more balance because you essentially have a 3rd provider with the IX connection. But, they growing pains don’t stop there.

As ISP’s, especially WISPs, have more and more resources to deal with cutting down latency they start seeking out better-peered networks.  The next growing pain that becomes apparent is the networks with lots of high-end peers tend to charge more money.  In order for the ISP to buy bandwidth they usually have to do it in smaller quantities from these types of providers. This introduces the probably of a mismatched pipe size again with a twist. The twist is the more, and better peers a network has the more traffic is going to want to travel to that peer. So, the more expensive peer, which you are probably buying less of, now wants to handle more of your traffic.

So, the network geeks will bring up things like padding, communities, local-pref, and all the tricks BGP has.  But, at the end of the day, BGP is not load balancing.  You can *influence* traffic, but BGP does not allow you to say “I want 100 megs of traffic here, and 500 megs here.”  Keep in mind BGP deals with traffic to and from IP blocks, not the traffic itself.

So, how does the ISP solve this? Knowing about your upstream peers is the first thing.  BGP looking glasses, peer reports such as those from Hurricane Electric, and general news help keep you on top of things.  Things such as new peering points, acquisitions, and new data centers can influence an ISPs traffic.  If your equipment supports things such as netflow, sflow, and other tools you can begin to build a picture of your traffic and what ASNs it is going to. This is your first major step. Get tools to know what ASNs the traffic is going to   You can then take this data, and look at how your own peers are connected with these ASNs.  You will start to see things like provider A is poorly peered with ASN 2906.

Once you know who your peers are and have a good feel on their peering then you can influence your traffic.  If you know you don’t want to send traffic destined for ASN 2906 in or out provider A you can then start to implement AS padding and all the tricks we mentioned before.  But, you need the greater picture before you can do that.

One last note. Peering is dynamic.  You have to keep on top of the ecosystem as a whole.

WPA is not encrypting your customer traffic

There was a Facebook discussion that popped up tonight about how a WISP answers the question “Is your network secure?” There were many good answers and the notion of WEP vs WPA was brought up.

In today’s society, you need end-to-end encryption for data to be secure. An ISP has no control over where the customer traffic is going. Thus, by default, the ISP has no control over customer traffic being secure.  “But Justin, I run WPA on all my aps and backhauls, so my network is secure.”  Again, think about end-to-end connectivity. Every one of your access points can be encrypted, and every one of your backhauls can be encrypted, but what happens when an attacker breaks into your wiring closet and installs a sniffer on a router or switch port?What most people forget is that WPA key encryption is only going on between the router/ap and the user device.  “But I lock down all my ports.” you say.  Okay, what about your upstream? Who is to say your upstream provider doesn’t have a port mirror running that dumps all your customer traffic somewhere.  “Okay, I will just run encrypted tunnels across my entire network!. Ha! let’s see you tear down that argument!”. Again, what happens when it leaves your network?  The encryption stops at the endpoint, which is the edge of your network.

Another thing everyone hears about is hotspots. Every so often the news runs a fear piece on unsecured hotspots.  This is the same concept.  If you connect to an unsecured hotspot, it is not much different than connecting to a hotspot where the WPA2 key is on a sign behind the cashier at the local coffee shop. The only difference is the “hacker” has an easier time grabbing any unsecured traffic you are sending. Notice I said unsecured.  If you are using SSL to connect to a bank site that session is sent over an encrypted session.  No sniffing going on there.  If you have an encrypted VPN the possibility of traffic being sniffed is next to none. I say next to none because certain types of VPNs are more secure than others. Does that mean the ISP providing the Internet to feed that hotspot is insecure? There is no feasible way for the ISP to provide end to end security of user traffic on the open Internet.

These arguments are why things like SSL and VPNs exist. Google Chrome is now expecting all websites to be SSL enabled to be marked as secure. VPNs can ensure end-to-end security, but only between two points.  Eventually, you will have to leave the safety and venture out into the wild west of the internet.  Things like Intranets exist so users can have access to information but still be protected. Even most of that is over encrypted SSL these days so someone can’t install a sniffer in the basement.

So what is a WISP supposed to say about security? The WISP is no more secure than any other ISP, nor are then any less secure.  The real security comes from the customer. Things like making sure their devices are up-to-date on security patches.  This includes the often forgotten router. Things like secure passwords, paying attention to browser warnings, e-mail awareness, and other things are where the real user security lies. VPN connections to work. Using SSL ports on e-mail. Using SSH and Secure RDP for network admins. Firewalls can help, but they don’t encrypt the traffic. Does all traffic need encrypted? no.

MTIN is growing again

Over the years MTIN has gone from being a computer repair shop to a dial-up ISP, to a Wireless ISP, and many things in-between.  Each time technology and market conditions change we adapt to change with it.  Our next metamorphosis is needed so we can grow into more aspects of the xISP world In order to accomplish this we are splitting into divisions of what we do.

The first is j2sw.com. This part of the business will be focused on personalised WISP services and support.  These will be custom tailored to a limited number of clients.  Projects such as the “Start a WISP” book and upcoming WISP publications will be run under j2sw.com. Other projects that benefit the ISP community will run from j2sw.com. Having j2sw Consulting as a separate arm allows for better personal attention to key customers.

The second division of the business is MTIN.NET.  This arm will be focused on business to business services such as data center co-location, network connectivity, tower services, and related type services. MTIN is becoming a project management company. We will leverage our vast partnerships to leverage the strength of many to accomplish your medium to large projects.   MTIN will be an umbrella company to bring in the right people for the right projects.

Look for changes to the websites and contact information coming over the next month or so. Justin will be involved with each entity on a very regular basis, but having extra folks can allow for time to be dedicated to ever-expanding projects without sacrificing service to the client.

Some FAQs
Why the change?
For a couple of reasons. The first is to leverage Justin being known in the xISP community.  having a face to the consulting side. This allows for better personal service as well as a trusted name in the WISP community. Secondly, is to allow a better division of resources based on projects and individual needs.

Is MTIN going away?
No, MTIN will move into a project management type of company.  We have access to a large network of contractors, partners, service providers, and other groups we have built since 1998. MTIN can bring in needed resources for projects under one contact point. This allows for projects to not depend on just one person.

Will contact info change?
In the upcoming months, we will be publishing updated contact info. The old information will not go away, but things will get routed to the proper folks better.

For now check out http://j2sw.com and like jswconsulting on facebook.

MTIN announces the support crate plan

Are you a WISP who needs just a little help now and then? Need a sanity check on configuration changes? Need someone who knows your network enough to say whether you need that most recent software upgrade?  Don’t have a big budget for the occasional issue? Need peace of mind you can call someone who won’t break the bank on a simple question? MTIN has a solution for you.

We are calling this the “Supply Drop Plan”. it’s designed for the WISP who needs someone who knows their network and their business for occasional questions outside of their comfort zone.  It consists of the following:
-2 Hours of consulting time a month.
-Reasonable amount of e-mail questions
-Be put on our e-mail notification list of relevant information
$89 a month.

Details
-Access to MTIN via phone during business hours or pre-arranged time (24 hour notice).
-e-mail questions tracked via a ticket system with a maximum of 24 hour response.  Most of the time same day.
-1 year contract

Just some things you can do with your two hours
-Have our engineers look at any new configurations you want to implement
-Unbiased advice on what equipment to order
-Help source equipment for wireless deployments on towers
-Make recommendations on upgrades
-Do audits on things like upstream providers, etc.

What’s not included
-Emergency support (we have plans for that). Emergency support is available but at non-contract rates on a first come first serve basis.
-Additional hours can be purchased on an as-needed basis.  Please note without an hourly block you will be first come first serve.
-Phone calls after hours must be pre-arranged. We can accommodate your schedule. Otherwise, support will be billed at after hours rates.

DMCA Designated Agent Directory updates

The following text is directly from: https://www.copyright.gov/dmca-directory/ 

A relevant F.A.Q. can be found at https://www.copyright.gov/dmca-directory/faq.html

Service Provider Designation of Agent to Receive Notifications of Claimed Infringement

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (“DMCA”) provides safe harbors from copyright infringement liability for online service providers. In order to qualify for safe harbor protection, certain kinds of service providers—for example, those that allow users to post or store material on their systems, and search engines, directories, and other information location tools— must designate an agent to receive notifications of claimed copyright infringement. To designate an agent, a service provider must do two things: (1) make certain contact information for the agent available to the public on its website; and (2) provide the same information to the Copyright Office, which maintains a centralized online directory of designated agent contact information for public use. The service provider must also ensure that this information is up to date.

In December 2016, the Office introduced an online registration system and electronically generated directory to replace the Office’s old paper-based system and directory. Accordingly, the Office no longer accepts paper designations. To designate an agent, a service provider must register with and use the Office’s online system.

Transition period: Any service provider that has designated an agent with the Office prior to December 1, 2016, in order to maintain an active designation with the Office, must submit a new designation electronically using the online registration system by December 31, 2017. Any designation not made through the online registration system will expire and become invalid after December 31, 2017. Until then, the Copyright Office will maintain two directories of designated agents: the directory consisting of paper designations made pursuant to the Office’s prior interim regulations which were in effect between November 3, 1998 and November 30, 2016 (the “old directory”), and the directory consisting of designations made electronically through the online registration system (the “new directory”). During the transition period, a compliant designation in either the old directory or the new directory will satisfy the service provider’s obligation under section 512(c)(2) to designate an agent with the Copyright Office. During the transition period, to search for a service provider’s most up-to-date designation, begin by using the new directory. The old directory should only be consulted if a service provider has not yet designated an agent in the new directory.