RFC’s you need to know: RFC 2796 BGP Route Reflection


Currently in the Internet, BGP deployments are configured such that all BGP speakers within a single AS must be fully meshed and any external routing information must be re-distributed to all other routers within that AS. For n BGP speakers within an AS that requires to maintain n*(n-1)/2 unique IBGP sessions. This "full mesh" requirement clearly does not scale when there are a large number of IBGP speakers each exchanging a large volume of routing information, as is common in many of todays internet networks.
This scaling problem has been well documented and a number of proposals have been made to alleviate this [2,3]. This document represents another alternative in alleviating the need for a "full mesh" and is known as "Route Reflection". This approach allows a BGP speaker (known as "Route Reflector") to advertise IBGP learned routes to certain IBGP peers. It represents a change in the commonly understood concept of IBGP, and the addition of two new optional transitive BGP attributes to prevent loops in routing updates.

How does BGP select which route?

BGP can be a complex and almost mystical protocol. For those of you who are trying to determine how BGP selects which route here is your guide. Before we get into it a couple of things to keep in mind. First, BGP is not a multipath routing protocol. This is different than what you may be used to with OSPF. BGP goes to great lengths to encure only one route is used. Secondly, there are some vendor specific rules which are applied. I will try to point those out as we go along.

1.The first test is if the next hop router is accessible.

2.If Synchronization is enabled, the router will ignore any iBGP routes which are not synced.

3.The third is Cisco specific. Cisco uses a weight attribute. The largest weight wins. Default weight is zero. Maximum weight is 65,535.

4.If the weights are the same, the highest local preference is chosen from LOCAL_PREF. It’s important to note that routers only receive this from iBGP.

5.Net up, the router checks to see if any of the possible routes were originated locally. The two main checks are either the network or aggregate commands. The network command wins if it is originated locally.

6.If two or more routes are still equal the router looks as AS_PATH. The router will prefer any iBGP routes. Outside of the AS BGP will prefer the shortest path.

7.BGP then moves on to the ORIGIN attribute. If the path lengths are the same, BGP selects IGP over EGP and EGP over INCOMPLETE routes.

8.BGP now looks at MED values. The lowest value is selected. Note, MED is only used if both routes are received from the same AS, or if always-compare-med has been enabled. Be careful with always-compare-meds as this can cause routing loops.

9.BGP will then prefer eBGP to iBGP routes. This is not the same as #5 above. Only external routes are looked at here.

10.Next IBGP costs are compared to the next hop routers. The closest one is selected.

11.Ages of routes are finally connected. This is kind of like choosing teams for dodgeball. The oldest route wins. The reason being is oldest routes are thought to be more stable.

12.And finally, if all else fails the router with the lowest router ID wins.

This is a quick low-down on how BGP “thinks” in order to determine routes. If anyone has some Cisco, Mikrotik, quagga, or other specific attributes please comment. I have reached out to Mikrotik and Ubiquiti specifically to see if this is in-line with their implementation of BGP.

PMP Software release 14.1.1

New Software Release 14.1.1 update includes:

450i Access Point now supports PMP 450 and PMP 430 Subscriber Modules. Network operators can replace a PMP 450 AP with the PMP 450i AP and benefit from improved packets processing capability of the PMP 450i.
450i ETSI complance for EU customers.
450i IC compliance for customers in Canada.

Broadband Applications & Construction Manual

If you are like me and enjoy technical manuals here is a good one from Commscope for you installers out there. It is a good overall manual, with some Commscope specific products thrown in.

From the manual
The Drop Cable Applications and Construction Guide is written for the cable installation professional who, due to the diverse services offered by CATV and telecommunication service providers, needs a quick and handy reference to practical installation information, especially in the case of retrofitting.
We’ve tried to simplify the decision-making process as to which cables to choose for what installation, taking into account factors such as performance over distance, preventing RF interference and fire/safety codes.


UBNT Rocket M5 temps

So I was messing around one day with an infrared thermometer and decided to see what the temp of a rocket m5 was powered on. This is not scientific by any means. Just something fun.

This is a normal room temperature rocket not on.

This is one after being on for 2-3 minutes.

Quanta LB4M insides

Just some geek Pr0n for you on a Friday afternoon. The insides of a Quanta LB4M switch. This is a great switch if you are needing a couple of 10 gig ports.